The Comparison of Mind Mapping‐Based Flipped Learning Approach on Introvert and Extrovert EFL Learners’ Speaking Skill

Document Type : Original Article

Author

Department of Linguistics and Language Teaching, Payame Noor University, Iran

Abstract

The use of different types of creative teaching techniques such as mind-mapping has drawn the attention of teachers. In this regard, the present research aimed to investigate the effect of implementing mind mapping technique on the improvement of EFL learners’ speaking skill in traditional and flipped classes. It also took a further step and examined the personality of the learners into account. To this end, 80 homogenous elementary EFL students who were studying English language teaching at Payam-e-Noor University, were divided into four equal groups based on their personality type and were assigned into the traditional and flipped classes. Before the treatment, a speaking pretest was taken and the results indicated that the groups were homogenous in terms of their speaking ability prior to the administration of the treatments. After the pre-test, the groups received treatment. The participants of the traditional groups drew mind maps about each speaking topic, and the participants of the flipped groups used digital mind mapping technique to brainstorm about the topic. After the twelve treatment sessions, the groups participated in a post-test. The findings indicated that in the post-test, there was a significant difference between the participants’ speaking scores in terms of pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency and comprehension. The findings showed that the introverts had better gains in the flipped classes, while the extroverts benefited from the treatment in the traditional classes. Moreover, the positive effects of mind mapping technique were observed in all four groups. These results can provide both teachers and students with valuable insights into the application of mind mapping technique in flipped and traditional classrooms for both introverted and extroverted personalities.

Keywords


Article Title [فارسی]

تاثیرتکنیک ترسیم ذهنی در بهبود مهارت گفتاری فراگیران ایرانی درونگرا وبرونگرا

Abstract [فارسی]

تحقیق حاصر به بررسی تاثیرتکنیک ترسیم ذهنی در بهبود صحبت کردن در فراگیران ایرانی درونگرا وبرونگرای انگلیسی بعنوان زبان خارجه در کلاسهای سنتی در مقابل کلاسهای مجازی پرداخته است. جمعیت مطالعه شامل ۸۰ زبان آموز از یک موسسه در طیف سنی ۱۵ تا ۲۰ سال و سطح متوسط مهارت زبان انگلیسی بود. شرکت کنندگان به گروه های درونگرا و برون گرا برای کلاس های سنتی و مجازی تقسیم شدند و هر گروه شامل ۲۰ زبان آموز بود. گروه سنتی، آموزش ها را با استفاده از نقشه های ذهنی دستی روی تخته یا کاغذ دریافت کرد درحالیکه گروه مجازی، آموزش را از طریق نرم افزار Mindomo در واتساپ دریافت کرد. طرح تحقیق نیمه تجربی برای گردآوری داده ها با کمک پرسشنامه نوع شخصیت، آزمون توانایی گفتاری و نرم افزار Mindomo مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. تحلیل داده ها با روش آنوای سه طرفه انجام شد و نتایح هیچ تفاوت آماری معنی داری را بین نمرات شرکت کنندگان در پیش آزمون نشان نداد درحالیکه تفاوت آماری معنی داری در پس آزمون مشاهده گردید. بر این اساس، درونگراها عملکرد بهتری را در کلاس های مجازی داشتند، درحالیکه برونگراها عملکرد بهتری را در کلاس های سنتی نشان دادند. بعلاوه، اثرات مثبت ترسیم ذهنی در تمامی گروه ها مشاهده شد. این نتایج می تواند مضامین ارزشمندی را برای معلمین و دانش آموزان در رابطه با کاربرد ترسیم ذهنی در کلاس های مجازی و سنتی در هر دو نوع شخصیت برون گرا و درونگرا به همراه داشته باشد.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • کلاس مجازی
  • کلاس سنتی
  • درونگرا
  • برون گرا
  • ترسیم ذهنی

The Comparison of Mind Mapping‐Based Flipped Learning Approach on Introvert and Extrovert EFL Learners’ Speaking Skill

[1]Farzaneh Khodabandeh*

  IJEAP- 2009-1624

Received: 2020-09-25                       Accepted: 2021-01-18                              Published: 2021-02-14

Abstract

The use of different types of creative teaching techniques such as mind-mapping has drawn the attention of teachers. In this regard, the present research aimed to investigate the effect of implementing mind mapping technique on the improvement of EFL learners’ speaking skill in traditional and flipped classes. It also took a further step and examined the personality of the learners into account. To this end, 80 homogenous elementary EFL students who were studying English language teaching at Payam-e-Noor University, were divided into four equal groups based on their personality type and were assigned into the traditional and flipped classes. Before the treatment, a speaking pretest was taken and the results indicated that the groups were homogenous in terms of their speaking ability prior to the administration of the treatments. After the pre-test, the groups received treatment. The participants of the traditional groups drew mind maps about each speaking topic, and the participants of the flipped groups used digital mind mapping technique to brainstorm about the topic. After the twelve treatment sessions, the groups participated in a post-test. The findings indicated that in the post-test, there was a significant difference between the participants’ speaking scores in terms of pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency and comprehension. The findings showed that the introverts had better gains in the flipped classes, while the extroverts benefited from the treatment in the traditional classes. Moreover, the positive effects of mind mapping technique were observed in all four groups. These results can provide both teachers and students with valuable insights into the application of mind mapping technique in flipped and traditional classrooms for both introverted and extroverted personalities.

Keywords: Flipped classes, Traditional Classroom, Introverted, Extroverted, Mind mapping technique

1. Introduction

The use of mind mapping technique has been referred to as one of the creative methods which can be employed to foster learning capacities. This learning technique is one type of pre-writing activities which is usually applied by teachers (Nasution, 2020) to help students to brainstorm and take notes and choose relevant ideas to the topic of writing in a visual form (Hemmati & Khodabandeh, 2017). This model also helps students associate new information to their background knowledge (AlMutairi, 2015; Araujo & Gadanidis, 2020; Riswanto & Prandika, 2012). With the use of this technique, students can indicate facts, the overall structure of a subject and its individual parts (AR, 2017). It is a fact that the application of mind mapping technique assists students in organizing their ideas to understand concepts better (Borovková, 2014; Srihandayani & Marlina, 2019), and learn information in a completely specialized way (Buzan, 2004; Stokhof, Vries, Bastiaens & Martens, 2020). The better students use mind mapping techniques, the more their metacognitive skills improve (Astriani, Susilo, Suwono, Lukiati & Purnomo, 2020). Accordingly, having students to develop mind mapping technique makes them capable of identifying clearly and creatively what they have learnt or what they have planned (Fatmawati, 2016).

Along with novel techniques such as mind mapping which provide students with more learning opportunities, technological developments, the Internet and new tendencies in the use of technology in teaching and learning processes have led to changes in learning forms from traditional classroom learning contexts to new contexts of learning such as, flipped classes (FCs). Teaching through FCs refers to a means of instruction where students study instructional material at home through watching instructional videos or study the assigned text which their teacher has delivered online before their class (Umutlu& Akpinar, 2020). It allows learners to connect their traditional classes to online learning. In FC, the role of a teacher is changed from being a provider of knowledge to a facilitator and organizer (Basal, 2015) who sets up the content, maps out homework, and provides a welcoming learning space that allows students to use their class time to do their tasks (Roehl, Reddy & Shannon, 2013).

Given the significant role of mind mapping technique in learning on one hand, which has been investigated and demonstrated by different scholars of various fields (Fu, Lin, Hwang & Zhang, 2019; Ghonsooly & Hosienpour,2009; Naghmeh-Abbaspour & Rastgoo, 2020), and the beneficial role of FCs for English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners in active learning than the traditional classrooms on the other hand (e.g., Ekmekci, 2017; Mohammadi, Barati & Youhanaee, 2019; Qader & Yalcin Arslan, 2019; Vitanofa &Anwar, 2018; Yang & Chen, 2020), they could be useful tools to be employed in learning English speaking skill as well (AR, 2017; Nasution, 2020), as the main objective of English teaching is to enhance students’ speaking abilities in EFL classrooms (Boonkit, 2010).

Although speaking is a crucial skill in studying English, many students in Iranian high schools do not know its importance or if they have information on this issue, it is too difficult for them to deal with it (Ghonsooly & Hosienpour, 2009). Students will not pay enough attention to speaking unless they are exposed to more practical methods which help them deal with the difficulties in a more convenient and understandable way. Mind mapping technique in the FCs (Zheng; Wu & Gou, 2018) may be able to provide such an opportunity for students in learning English speaking skill.

However, despite exposure to the same practical materials, there are some students in a class, performing differently while receiving the same treatment from their teacher. Some students have a better performance in a specific skill while other students may perform better in other kinds of skills. It shows that there are some factors which may impact the result of the study beside the treatment given by a teacher. One of these certain factors is students’ personality which may affect their level and degree of learning (Pike, 2006). Personality is defined as total-complex psychophysics of an individual which is influenced by environment, innate capacity and several other factors which determine an individual’s action and reaction (Pervin & John, 2001). Personality in this case can be described through two main types of extrovert and introvert that exist in a continuum at opposite poles. Studies show that extroverts have energetic behavior, and take part in group activities and interactions (Roccas, Sagiv, Schwartz, & Knafo, 2002). Whereas, introverts tend to work privately and prefer more time to themselves and enjoy asynchronous communication (Yeung, Read, & Schmid, 2012). Students with these two types of personalities have different capabilities and understanding and represent different levels of achievement in their learning process, although their teacher uses the same intervention and technique.

Knowing the problems students face in speaking, this research applies a mind mapping technique to help them in generating, developing, and organizing their ideas and subsequently enhancing their speaking capabilities. This study intends to find a response to the inquiry that whether mind mapping technique can help introvert and extrovert EFL learners improve their speaking skills. According to the objectives of the study, the following questions were raised:

Research Question One: Is there any significant difference between the impact of mind mapping technique on the speaking of the introvert and extrovert EFL learners in traditional and flipped classes?

Research Question Two: Is there any significant difference between the extrovert and introvert groups’ performance on posttest of speaking?

Research Question Three: Is there any significant difference between the treatments and personality traits on posttest of speaking”?

 

2. Literature Review

2.1. Mind Mapping

As pointed out by a number of scholars, using mind-mapping technique in classes is highly beneficial for EFL learners as it is conducive to their speaking ability (e.g., Alwadi & Ismail, 2019; AR, 2017; Ghonsooly & Hosienpour, 2009; Nasution, 2020; Orlova, 2017; Rachmawati, Nugrahaeni & Mauludiyah, 2020; Srihandayani & Marlina, 2019) and has a positive influence in their reading comprehension (Liu & Yuizono, 2020; Malekzadeh & Bayat, 2015). Furthermore, introducing mind map technique into English classes can improve students’ pronunciation (Al-Jarf, 2011) and their writing skills (Nurlaila, 2013; Rofi’i, 2017; Yunus & Chien, 2016; Wette, 2017). It can also serve as an effective learning strategy to help EFL learners enhance their vocabulary (Borovková, 2014; Inés Gómez Betancur & King, 2014; Karami Fard, 2013) and develop summarizing (Nouri Mohammed, 2013). Utilizing mind-map technique in EFL classes also help students to organize their ideas to understand content through the use of different learning materials (Inés Gómez Betancur & King, 2014) and promote their professional communicative competencies (Orlova, 2017). A mind mapping intervention can also increase learners’ listening comprehension (Koster, van der Wilt, van Kruistum & van der Veen, 2017) and their interest in grammar learning (Suseno & Setyawan, 2014.; Wang, 2019). Its use has also shown to be a feasible teaching method in alleviating student’s language anxiety (Yen, 2010).

2.2. Flipped Instruction

FCs, as new educational models concentrating on learner-based instruction, have attracted attention of different researchers and practitioners worldwide. Its use has been considered an effective instructional tool on students' skills such as writing (e.g., Abedi, Keshmirshekan & Namaziandost, 2019; Leis, Cooke & Tohei, 2015; Wu, Yang, Scott Chen Hsieh & Yamamoto, 2020), speaking (Amiryousefi, 2019; Chen & Hwang, 2020; Lin & Hwang, 2018), reading (Bhavsar, 2020; Karimi & Hamzavi, 2017; Tse, Choi & Tang, 2019), and listening (Namaziandost, Neisi & Momtaz, 2019). Former research has also highlighted the usefulness of flipped classes in promoting EFL learners’ interest in grammar (Valizadeh & Soltanpour, 2020). Similarly, the application of the flipped model has been confirmed as efficient resource of learning which creates an interactive and collaborative context for students (Bohota, 2019). Studies also have shown that students who are taught in the FCs along with mind mapping technique have positive feedback about them (Goothy, Movva, Manyam & Reddy, 2019). Furthermore, those who are taught in the FCs are more open to the adoption of this innovative teaching strategy as an advanced instructional method in their classes (Strayer, 2012).

2.3. Extrovert and Introvert Personalities

Comparing the effect of extroversion and introversion personality types on EFL learners' skills has received considerable attention during the past few years. For example, Lestari, Sada, and Suhartono (2015) compared extroverted and introverted students on speaking performance and indicated that introvert students prefer to study by themselves while extroverts want to study with their peers. Similarly, Rahmawati and Nurmayasari (2016) and Rofi’i (2017) found out that there is no difference between extroverted and introverted students in their speaking skill. On the words of Murphy, Eduljee, Croteau, Parkman (2017) both extroverts and introverts show similar preferences to participate in classroom activities.

On the other hand, Wulandari (2017), Samand, Sailan and Lio (2019) in their study found that introvert students had better performance in their speaking skill compared to the extrovert ones. Likewise, Stanković and Čolović (2016) confirmed that there is a significant association between students’ personality type and their language learning styles. Moreover, according to Noprianto (2017), Nurianfar, Azizi Far, and Gowhary (2014), extrovert students tend to use more strategies in their reading activities than introvert students. Involving introvert students in group activities enables them to interact as much as possible (Hakim, 2015). Extrovert learners show higher self-regulation level in reading activities compared to introvert students (Nosratinia & Abbasi, 2017). In addition, it was found that both personality types can predict learners’ reading fluency (Foroozandehfar &Famil Khalili, 2019).

In a recent research which is similar to the present study, Yuliani, Linggar Bharati and Warsono (2019) proved that both extrovert and introvert students can benefit from the advantages of using brainstorming and mind mapping techniques in their writing skill. More to the point, Hussain, Abu Sa'aleek and Elenzi (2020) studied the effect of flipped learning and students’ personality traits on their English achievement and confirmed that both introvert and extrovert students performed better in the flipped classes.

The review of the previous studies shows that, although very limited research has been carried out on comparing the flipped and traditional classes in general (Abedi, et al., 2019; Ekmekci, 2017; Karimi & Hamzavi, 2017; Namaziandost et., 2019) and examining the flipped-based instruction on students’ speaking skill (Amiryousefi, 2019) in specific, no study has examined the impact of mind mapping‐based flipped learning approach on introvert and extrovert EFL Learners’ speaking skill. Therefore, the present study can contribute to the existing literature with filling this gap.

3. Methodology

3.1. Research Design

The design of the present study was a quasi-experimental with pre and posttest since random selection of the participants was not possible. This study involved the comparison of four separate groups, one extroverted and one introverted group for traditional and the same for the flipped classes. All groups were under the instruction of the same instructor in the same university during the same educational year.

3.2. Participants

The participants of the study consisted of eighty university students who were studying English language teaching at Payam-e-Noor University. They took the two-credit obligatory course of Conversation One in the first semester of the 2019-2020 academic year. Although the participants were at the same level, for more accuracy, and for homogenization sake, an Oxford Placement Test (OPT) was given to them prior to the experiment. Based on the test results, all of them had an elementary English language level. They were in the age range of 18 to 35 years old. They were divided into four groups with 20 students in each group based on their personality type; two introvert and extrovert flipped groups (40 students) and two extrovert and introvert traditional groups (40 students).

3.3. Data Collection Tools

To collect the data required for the research, the following tools were employed:

3.3.1. Questionnaire

In order to determine the personality types of the participants, they were given the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) (Eysenck & Eysenck, as cited in Arniatika, 2020) which consists of 10 items. The first 5 items are about extroverted personality while the second 5 questions examine the introverted personality type. The questionnaire has a good validity and reliability (.74) and is recommended to be used for determining extrovert and introvert personality traits (Yousefi, 2016).

3.3.2. Teaching Material

The instructional material used in the present research was, Top Notch Fundamentals (3rd Edition) (Saslow, Ascher& Rouse, 2006) which includes a student book, a work book, and an educational CD. The book consists of seven units which is designed for true beginning students. This book includes communication goals, grammar and vocabulary exercises. It also includes extra features such as digital full-color Vocabulary Flash Cards, Conversation Activator videos, Pronunciation Cooch videos, and a Writing Booster.

 

3.3.3. Speaking Pre and Post-tests

In order to evaluate the participants' speaking ability before and after the treatment sessions, two speaking tests were used (Appendix A). The topics of both pre- and post -tests were chosen from the participants’ designated book, and the scoring procedure was done by two English instructors. Evaluations were carried out according to five criteria (Appendix B), including pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency and comprehension (Harris as cited in Ounis, 2017).

3.4. The Traditional Class

There were two traditional groups, namely; extroverted and introverted which received their instruction separately in traditional classrooms. Their classes were held two days a week on Sundays and Wednesdays from 8:30-10:00 a.m. for the introverted traditional group and 10:30 to 12:00 a.m. for the extroverted traditional group. In the first session, the researcher taught both traditional groups the techniques of speaking such as brainstorming, listing the ideas that were relevant to the speaking topic and drawing a mind-map. The participants were taught to place the main topic of the speaking in the center of the page or the board, and make a note of different ideas that might cross their mind and make a list of them all. After brainstorming, they were asked to go through the list to choose the ideas that were relevant to the topic and draw a map for them. They were taught to connect the lines that radiated from the central word to create branches and show sub-topic branches and represent different ideas. Two examples of the mind maps drawn by the students can be seen in Figure 1 and 2.

 

 

Figure 1: An Example of a Mind Map Drawn on the White Board

 

 

 

Figure 2: An Example of a Mind Map Drawn with Mindomo App

After the participants of the traditional group learned to draw mind maps, the teacher gave them a topic in the class and asked them to think and try to prepare the related mind map in the given time. When the works were completed, the teacher called some participants to draw their mind maps on the board and the others were expected to give their comments and brainstorm on the provided maps. This way, they learned more and could reach better understanding of the concept of mind mapping. After short discussions and brainstorming, the participants were given time to prepare themselves to speak in the class. The teacher randomly selected some participants to talk about the topic, and asked other students to give some feedback. During each student presentation, new words and expressions required by the learners were provided by their classmates or the teacher. Finally, the participants were asked to think about the topics covered in the class for their following session, while a new topic was always determined for them to draw a new mind map and practice speaking at home.

3.5. The Flipped Classes

In the flipped classes, the instructor made two online groups in WhatsApp in which the introverted and extroverted participants were added to their assigned groups. The classes were held two days a week on Saturdays and Tuesdays from 8:30 to 10:00 a.m. for the introverted group and 10:30-12:00 a.m. for the extroverted group. In the first session, the teacher taught pre-speaking activities to both groups like the traditional classes, except that they were taught to use digital mind mapping called Mindomo software instead of drawing by hand. An example of digital mind maps provided by the students in the flipped class is presented in Figure 3.

 

 

 

 

Figure 3: An Example of Mind Map shared by the participants in the Introverted Flipped Class

In both flipped classes in WhatsApp groups, the participants accessed the topic of the speaking activity at the group and were asked to prepare a digital mind map for it and share in the group. This is opposite to the traditional groups which were introduced new topic at the traditional classrooms, and drew their mind maps at the class. In the flipped classes, the participants received the speaking topics in the group and then were asked to think about the topic and draw mind maps using Mindomo software and share their mind maps in their assigned group before the class. In the following session, they attended the traditional classroom and talked about the designated topic along with some background knowledge. After the treatment sessions, all the participants took part in the speaking post-test and their interviews were graded by two raters and the groups were then compared.

4. Results

To explore the research questions raised in this study, two-way ANOVA[2] was run to compare the extrovert and introvert flipped and traditional groups’ means on pretest and posttest of speaking. Table 1 displayed the normality of the data which was checked through Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk tests. The non-significant results of these tests (p > .05) indicated that the assumption of normality was retained.

Table 1: Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk Tests of Normality

Group

Personality

Kolmogorov-Smirnov

Shapiro-Wilk

Statistic

df

Sig.

Statistic

df

Sig.

Traditional

Introverted

Pretest

.191

20

.054

.941

20

.246

Posttest

.190

20

.058

.919

20

.094

Extroverted

Pretest

.158

20

.200

.948

20

.340

Posttest

.128

20

.200

.947

20

.327

Flipped

Introverted

Pretest

.115

20

.200

.962

20

.577

Posttest

.191

20

.055

.947

20

.327

Extroverted

Pretest

.162

20

.175

.936

20

.205

Posttest

.169

20

.136

.926

20

.127

 

Table 2 displays the groups’ means on the pretest of speaking. The results showed that the traditional and flipped extrovert and introvert participants had almost equal means on the pretest of speaking.

Table 2: Descriptive Statistics; Pretest of Speaking by Group by Personality Traits

Group

Personality

Mean

Std. Error

95% Confidence Interval

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

Traditional

Introverted

7.700

.590

6.526

8.874

Extroverted

8.600

.590

7.426

9.774

Flipped

Introverted

8.350

.590

7.176

9.524

Extroverted

8.500

.590

7.326

9.674

A two-way between-groups analysis of variance (Table 3) was conducted to explore the impact of treatment, personality trait and their interaction on the pretest of speaking. The Levene’s test showed that the assumption of homogeneity of variances was retained (Appendix C). The results indicated that there was not any statistically significant main effect for type of treatment, F (1, 76) = .217, p = .642; moreover, the effect size was small (partial eta squared = .003). There was not any statistically significant main effect for personality trait, F (1, 76) = .793, p = .376; moreover, the effect size was small (partial eta squared = .010). And finally; the interaction effect between group and personality was not statistically significant, F (1, 76) = .404, p = .527. It also showed a weak effect size (partial eta squared = .005). These results indicated that the groups were homogenous in terms of their speaking ability prior to the administration of the treatments.

Table 3 : Tests of Between-Subjects Effects; Pretest of Speaking by Groups by Personality

Source

Type III Sum of Squares

Df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Partial Eta Squared

Group

1.513

1

1.513

.217

.642

.003

Personality

5.513

1

5.513

.793

.376

.010

Group * Personality

2.813

1

2.813

.404

.527

.005

Error

528.550

76

6.955

 

 

 

Total

6033.000

80

 

 

 

 

Table 4 displays the groups’ means on the posttest of speaking. The results showed that the extrovert EFL learners in the tradition group had a higher mean than the introvert group, while the introvert students in flipped group had a higher mean.

Table 4: Descriptive Statistics; Posttest of Speaking by Group by Personality Traits

Group

Personality

Mean

Std. Error

95% Confidence Interval

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

Traditional

Introverted

10.450

.542

9.370

11.530

Extroverted

12.000

.542

10.920

13.080

Flipped

Introverted

16.950

.542

15.870

18.030

Extroverted

14.400

.542

13.320

15.480

A two-way between-groups analysis of variance (Table 5) was conducted to explore the impact of treatment, personality trait and their interaction on the posttest of speaking. The Levene’s test showed that the assumption of homogeneity of variances was retained (Appendix C). The results indicated that there was a statistically significant main effect for type of treatment; favoring the flipped group, F (1, 76) = 67.37, p = .000; moreover, the effect size was large (partial eta squared = .470). There was not any statistically significant main effect for personality trait, F (1, 76) = .851, p = .359; moreover, the effect size was small (partial eta squared = .011). And finally; the interaction effect between group and personality was statistically significant, F (1, 76) = 14.30, p = .000. It also showed a large effect size (partial eta squared = .158).

 

 

Table 5: Tests of Between-Subjects Effects; Pretest of Speaking by Groups by Personality

Source

Type III Sum of Squares

Df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Partial Eta Squared

Group

396.050

1

396.050

67.383

.000

.470

Personality

5.000

1

5.000

.851

.359

.011

Group * Personality

84.050

1

84.050

14.300

.000

.158

Error

446.700

76

5.878

 

 

 

Total

15404.000

80

 

 

 

 

However, personality traits did not exercise any significant effect on the performance of the EFL learners on posttest of speaking; thus the second null-hypothesis as “there was not any significant difference between the extrovert and introvert groups’ performance on posttest of speaking” was supported. And finally; there was a significant interaction between treatments and personality trait; thus the third null-hypothesis as “there was not any significant interaction between the treatments and personality traits on posttest of speaking” was rejected.

5. Discussion

Based on the results discussed above it can be concluded that the groups were homogenous in terms of their performance on the pretest of speaking. However, there was significant difference between the impact of mind mapping technique on the posttest of speaking of the introvert and extrovert EFL learners in the traditional and flipped classes. According to the results, mind mapping technique had general positive effects on all participants’ speaking ability. Previous studies have also referred to the positive effects of mind mapping as it is conducive to EFL learners’ speaking ability (e.g., AlWadi & Ismail, 2019; AR, 2017; Ghonsooly & Hosienpour, 2009; Nasution, 2020; Orlova, 2017; Rachmawati et al., 2020; Srihandayani & Marlina, 2019). However, unlike the present study which has concluded that introvert students in the flipped class benefited mind mapping more than extroverts, Yuliani et al. (2019) have come to the conclusion that mind mapping technique has affected both personality types, while extroverts have been more affected by the technique. This discrepancy can be due to application of the flipped method along with the mind mapping technique. However, more studies are required to obtain more reliable results in this regard. So, regarding the second research question, the results show that personality traits did not exercise any significant effect on the performance of the EFL learners on the posttest of speaking.

And finally, there was a significant interaction between treatments and personality trait, as it was shown in the results, the extroverts in the traditional group had higher scores than those in the flipped classes, while the introverts in the flipped classes gained higher scores than those in the traditional classes. The introverted participants benefitted from the flipped class more than the extroverted ones as they prefer quiet contexts, and think prior to each activity. The results of the study contradict Hussain et al., (2020) who confirm that both introvert and extrovert students perform better in flipped classes. According to the results of the current research, the flipped classes helped the introverted participants to have a quiet reflective place before the class in which they were able to think about the topic and prepare their mind maps. The combination of the flipped class and the traditional one gave the introverted participants a chance to balance their time in the WhatsApp group with the traditional classroom. In contrast, the extrovert participants were energized by the traditional class as they tended to be with their peers to think about the topic.

The findings of this study in terms of significant positive impact of flipped teaching strategy on speaking skill of learners are in line with the findings of the previous research studies ran by Amiryousefi, (2019), Chen and Hwang (2020), Lin and Hwang (2018) who concluded that students taught by flipped method outperform those who are taught in traditional classrooms. The application of flipped teaching method makes students more interactive as well as collaborative (Akmal, 2019; Pavenelli, 2018). Sharing mind-maps and brainstorming in the group, helped the participants to improve their collaborative skills. They also experienced fruitful interactions and cooperation with each other and their teacher. According to Zheng et al (2018), flipped classes can improve students’ learning outcomes, while significantly enhance their capabilities. Moreover, Goothy et al., (2019) came to the conclusion that FCs along with mind mapping technique can lead to positive feedback and effects.

Interestingly, Bohota (2019) found out that a combination of flipped and traditional methods of teaching can result in more interesting learning outcomes for both types of personalities. This is in line with the results of the present study, indicating that the two types of personality can benefit flipped and traditional methods of teaching differently.

6. Conclusion and Implications

The ability to speak English as a foreign language fluently and accurately is considered as an important skill in academic development. In order to achieve this skill, teachers should take their learners’ personality into account. This study was conducted to find a response to the inquiry that whether mind mapping technique could help introvert and extrovert EFL learners improve their speaking skills, while also investigating the effect of flipped teaching strategy on their personality traits. This research concludes that the participants’ personality traits were interrelated to the teaching method and in order to help learning take place, they should be synchronized.

According to the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that mind mapping technique was effective to help students improve their speaking skills in terms of enriching their vocabulary, promoting their pronunciation, enhancing their grammar, fluency and comprehension. As a result, the mind mapping technique was suitable to help students in improving their speaking, since the technique motivated them to brainstorm the topics before their speaking. Mind mapping technique makes this happen by mirroring the cognitive processes that all human beings go through in constructing understanding and enabling students to see relationships between concepts (Davies, 2011).

On the other hand, the findings of this study showed that the introvert students could benefit more from the flipped classes, while extroverts benefited more from the traditional settings of teaching. Accordingly, it seems that blending traditional classroom with FC can give many positive impacts on students’ achievement in both personality types. It might be an impossible task to have a total shift from traditional classroom to FC approach in EFL classrooms in Iranian context and it may require greater effort and time in the development of the online classes. Therefore, this study can be used as an opportunity to make the best use of the traditional and the FC approaches in order to benefit introverted as well as extroverted students.

This study has some valuable implications for teachers and students. First of all, students of both personality types are encouraged to apply mind mapping technique in improving their speaking skills in both traditional and flipped contexts. Since this technique showed its effectiveness in both conditions and for both types of personalities, it can be a good and efficient tool to promote different language skills, particularly speaking.       On the other hand, teachers should use mind mapping as a teaching technique at the pre-speaking phase to motivate their students to activate their prior knowledge and generate some ideas about the topic.

While this study provides some beneficial information for researchers, students and teachers, additional research is needed to further explore and understand how educators can evaluate, modify or adapt their usual or preferred teaching methods to meet the needs of both extroverted and introverted students in their classrooms. Thus, it is recommended that teachers consider how to incorporate a variety of Ed-tech tools in their classrooms to provide an opportunity for all students to experience innovative teaching methods and broaden students and teachers view of what is considered participation in the classroom.

 

 

 

 

References

Abedi, P., Keshmirshekan, M. H., & Namaziandost, E. (2019). The comparative effect of flipped classes instruction versus traditional instruction on Iranian intermediate EFL learners' English composition writing. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research6 (4), 43-56.

Akmal, A. (2019). The use of audio-visual media in speaking ability of English speaking club students at Stmik Royal Kisaran. Journal of Science and Social Research, 2(1), 1-6.

Al-Jarf, R. (2011). Teaching spelling skills with a mind mapping software. Asian EFL Journal, 53, 4-16.

AlMutairi, A. N. M. (2015). The effect of using brainstorming strategy in developing creative problem solving skills among male students in Kuwait: A field study on Saud Al-Kharji school in Kuwait City. Journal of Education and Practice6 (3), 136-145.

AlWadi, A., & Ismail, N. S. (2019). The use of min mapping strategy to improve speaking competency among EFL primary school students. Trends in Social Sciences1(2), 6-14.

Arniatika, S. (2020). Personality traits, motivational orientations and speaking achievements in the EFL context. International Journal of Indonesian Education and Teaching4(1), 110-120.

Amiryousefi, M. (2019). The incorporation of flipped learning into conventional classes to enhance EFL learners’ L2 speaking, L2 listening, and engagement. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching13(2), 147-161.

AR, F. M. (2017). Improving students’ ability in speaking descriptive text by using mind mapping. English Language Teaching and Research1(1), 1-6.

Araujo, R. C., & Gadanidis, G. (2020). Online collaborative mind mapping in a mathematics teacher education program: a study on student interaction and knowledge construction. ZDM Mathematics Education 52, 943–958.

Astriani, D., Susilo, H., Suwono, H., Lukiati, B., & Purnomo, A. (2020). Mind mapping in learning models: A tool to improve student metacognitive skills. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning15(6), 4-17.

Basal, A. (2015). The implementation of a flipped classroom in foreign language teaching. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 16 (4), 28-37.

Betancur, M. I. G., & King, G. (2014). Using mind mapping as a method to help ESL/EFL students connect vocabulary and concepts in different contexts. Revista Trilogía6(10), 69-85.

Bhavsar, V. M. (2020). A transparent assignment to encourage reading for a flipped course. College Teaching68(1), 33-44.

Bohota, N. I. (2019). Flipped classroom: teaching and learning of English language in the context of EFL. Doctoral dissertation, Brac University.

Boonkit, K. (2010). Enhancing The development of speaking ability for non-native speakers of English, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, (2), 1305-1309.

Borovková, M. P. (2014). Application of mind maps in ELT with the emphasis in lexis. Unpublished MA Thesis: Charles University in Prague, Prague.

Buzan, T. (2004). Mind maps at work: How to be the best at your job and still have time to play. Plume: Academy of Nottingham.

Chen, M. R. A., & Hwang, G. J. (2020). Effects of a concept mapping‐based flipped learning approach on EFL students’ English speaking performance, critical thinking awareness and speaking anxiety. British Journal of Educational Technology51(3), 817-834.

Davies, M. (2011). Concept mapping, mind mapping and argument mapping: what are the differences and do they matter? Higher education62(3), 279-301.

Ekmekci, E. (2017). The flipped writing classroom in Turkish EFL context: A comparative study on a new model. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education18(2), 151-167.

Fatmawati, B. (2016). The analysis of students' creative thinking ability using mind map in biotechnology course. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia5(2), 216-221.

Foroozandehfar, L. & Famil Khalili, Gh. (2019). On the relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ reading fluency, their personality types and learning styles. Cogent Arts & Humanities, 6, (1), 1-19.

Fu, Q. K., Lin, C. J., Hwang, G. J., & Zhang, L. (2019). Impacts of a mind mapping-based contextual gaming approach on EFL students’ writing performance, learning perceptions and generative uses in an English course. Computers & Education137, 59-77.

Ghonsooly, B. & Hosienpour, A. (2009). The effect of concept mapping on EFL speaking fluency. IJAL, 12(1), 87-114.

Goothy, S. S. K.; Movva, S.; Manyam, R.; & Reddy, RS. (2019). The flipped classes and mind mapping in teaching basic sciences to postgraduate dental students. International Journal of Biochemistry & Physiology, 4, (4), 1-5.

Hakim, M.A. R. (2015). Experienced EFL teachers’ challenges and strategies in teaching speaking for introvert students. European Journal of Social Sciences, 48(4), 437-446.

Hemmati, F., & Khodabandeh, F. (2017). Advanced writing. Tehran: Payam Noor University Press.

Hussain, J. A.; Abu Sa'aleek, R. A. & Elenzi, N. M. (2020). The effect of flipped learning and student's personality trait on 5th grade students' English achievement. Research Gate, 38, 7-48. Retrieved from:                                                                    http://damascusuniversity.edu.sy/mag/edu/FCKBIH/file/2-2017/7-47.pdf

Jung, C.G. (1954). The development of personality. Princeton University Press: U.S. Lawrence.

Koster, M. P., van der Wilt, F. M., van Kruistum, C. J., & van der Veen, C. (2017). The effect of mind mapping on listening comprehension and vocabulary in early childhood education. Paper presented at European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction, Tampere, Finland.

Karimi, M., & Hamzavi, R. (2017). The effect of flipped model of instruction on EFL learners' reading comprehension: Learners' attitudes in focus. Advances in Language and Literary Studies8(1), 95-103.

Karami Fard, E. (2013). Applying mind mapping strategies on Iranian vocabulary learning. Paper presented at the first National conference on literature language teaching, Translation In Education: Azad Univeristy of Meybod: Meybod.

Leis, A., Cooke, S., & Tohei, A. (2015). The effects of flipped classrooms on English composition writing in an EFL environment. International Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching5(4), 37-51.

Lestari, A., Sada, C., & Suhartono, L. (2015). Analysis on the relationship of extrovert–introvert personality and students' speaking performance (Doctoral dissertation, Tanjungpura University). Retrieved from: https://media.neliti.com/media/publications/214213-analysis-on-the-relationship-of-extrover.pdf

Lin, C. J., & Hwang, G. J. (2018). A learning analytics approach to investigating factors affecting EFL students' oral performance in a FC. Journal of Educational Technology & Society21(2), 205-219.

Liu, T., & Yuizono, T. (2020). Mind mapping training’s effects on reading ability: Detection based on eye tracking sensors. Sensors20(16), 1-15.

Malekzadeh, B., & Bayat, A. (2015). The effect of mind mapping strategy on comprehending implicit information in EFL reading texts. International Journal of Educational Investigations2(3), 81-90.

Mento, AJ. (1999). Mind mapping in executive education applications and outcomes. Journal of Management Development, 18(4), 390-416.

Mirzaee, M. & Gharibeh, S. (2017). Web-Based Language Learning Perception And Personality Characteristics Of University Students. Teaching English with Technology, 16 (2), 57-70.

Mohammadi, J., Barati, H., & Youhanaee, M. (2019). The effectiveness of using flipped cassroom model on Iranian EFL learners' English achievements and their willingness to communicate. English Language Teaching, 12(5), 101-115.

Murphy, L.; Eduljee, N. B.; Croteau, K. & Parkman, S. (2017). Extraversion and introversion personality type and preferred teaching and classroom participation: A pilot study. Journal of Psychosocial Research, 12, (2), 437-450.

Naghmeh-Abbaspour, B., & Rastgoo, V. (2020). Analysis for finding the effect of mind mapping technique on the Iranian English as Foreign Language learning ‘writing skills. Texto Livre: Linguagem e Tecnologia13(2), 102-116.

Namaziandost, E., Neisi, L., & Momtaz, S. (2019). The effectiveness of flipped classes models on listening‎ comprehension among Iranian upper-intermediate EFL‎ learners. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research6(4), 129-139.

Nasution, D. S. (2020). Mind mapping to improve students’ speaking skill. English Education: English Journal for Teaching and Learning8(01), 1-12.

Noprianto, E. (2017). Extrovert versus introvert students: What EFL learning strategy do they use? Asian TEFL, 2 (2), 119-135.

Nosratinia, M. & Abbasi, f. (2017). The comparative effect of teaching concept mapping in reading on extrovert and introvert EFL learners' self-Regulation. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 6 (5), 161-172.

Nouri Mohammed, A. (2013). Iintroducing the mind map technique to promote lesson summarizing in EFL instruction: Case study of first year IMD student of the English language. Unpublished PhD Dissertation at Mohamed Khieder University of Biskra University: Lampour, India.

Nurlaila, A. P. (2013). The use of mind mapping technique in writing descriptive text. Journal of English and Education1(2), 9-15.

Nurianfar, Y.; Azizi, A. & Gowhary, H. (2014). The analysis of reading strategies used by extrovert and introvert intermediate students in ilam Province, Iran. Journal of Novel Applied Sciences, 3, (12), 1392-1402.

Orlova, N. (2017). Efficiency Of mind mapping for the development of speaking skills in students of non-linguistic study fields. Journal of Science and Education, 6, 151-161.

Pervin, L., & John, O. (2001). Personality: Theory and research. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Pike, G. R. (2006). Students’ personality types, intended majors, and college expectations: Further evidence concerning psychological and sociological interpretations of Holland’s theory. Research in Higher Education47(7), 801-822.

Qader, R. O., & Yalcin Arslan, F. (2019). The effect of flipped classroom instruction in writing: A case study with Iraqi EFL learners. Teaching English with Technology19(1), 36-55.

Ounis, A. (2017). The assessment of speaking skills at the tertiary level. International Journal of English Linguistics7(4), 95-112.

Rachmawati, M., Nugrahaeni, F., & Mauludiyah, L. (2020). Improving Arabic speaking skill through mind mapping strategy. Izdihar: Journal of Arabic Language Teaching, Linguistics, and Literature3(1), 31-44.

Rahmawati, S. & Nurmayasari, E. (2016). A comparative study between extroverted and introverted students and their speaking ability. English Education Study Program,15 (2), 20-29.

Riswanto & Prandika, P.P. (2012). The use of mind mapping strategy in the teaching of writing. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2 (21), 27-40.

Roccas, S., Sagiv, L., Schwartz, S. H., & Knafo, A. (2002). The big five personality factors and personal values. Personality and social psychology bulletin28(6), 789-801.

Rofi’i, A. (2017). Improving students’ motivation in writing descriptive texts by using the mind mapping technique. English Education Journal, 4, (2), 114-121.

Roehl, A., Reddy, S. L. & Shannon, G. J. (2013). The FC: An opportunity to engage millennial students through active learning strategies. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 105 (2), 44-48.

Saslow, J., Ascher, A., & Rouse, J. C. (2006). Top Notch fundamentals. Pearson Longman.

Samand, s.; Sailan, Z. & Lio, A. (2019). Analysis on the relationship of extrovert-introvert personality and students’ speaking performance in English study program of Halu Oleo University. Journal of Language Education and Educational Technology, 4, (1), 1-15.

Srihandayani, T., & Marlina, L. (2019). Using brainstorming technique in speaking activity for senior high school students. Journal of English Language Teaching8(1), 22-32.

Stanković, M. & Čolović, M. (2016). The impact of Ict use on Fll In different personality types. International Scientific Conference On Ict And E-Business Related Research, Singidunum University. Retrieved from:

http://portal.sinteza.singidunum.ac.rs/Media/files/2016/326-331.pdf

Stokhof, H., De Vries, B., Bastiaens, T., & Martens, R. (2020). Using mind maps to make student questioning effective: Learning outcomes of a principle-based scenario for teacher guidance. Research in Science Education50(1), 203-225.

Strayer, J. (2012). How learning in an inverted classroom influences cooperation, innovation and task orientation. Learning Environments Research, 15, (2), 171–193.

Suseno, C. I., & Setyawan, S. (2014). The effect of using mind mapping technique on the students’ grammar achievement. Retrieved from: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/43024979.pdf

Tse, W. S., Choi, L. Y., & Tang, W. S. (2019). Effects of video‐based flipped class instruction on subject reading motivation. British Journal of Educational Technology50(1), 385-398.

Umutlu, D., & Akpinar, Y. (2020). Effects of different video modalities on writing achievement in flipped English classes. Contemporary Educational Technology12(2), 1-16.

Valizadeh, M., & Soltanpour, F. (2020). The flipped pedagogy: Effects on the grammatical competence and writing skill of basic users of English. International Journal of Instruction13(3), 761-776.

Vitanofa, A., & Anwar, K. (2018). The effect of flipped learning through graphic organizers toward writing skill at MAN 2 Gresik. Journal of English Teaching, Literature, and Applied Linguistics1(2), 37-49.

Wang, L. (2019). Research on the application of the mind map in English grammar teaching. Theory and Practice in Language Studies9(8), 990-995.

Wette, R. (2017). Using mind maps to reveal and develop genre knowledge in a graduate writing course. Journal of Second Language Writing38, 58-71.

Wu, W. C. V., Yang, J. C., Scott Chen Hsieh, J., & Yamamoto, T. (2020). Free from demotivation in EFL writing: the use of online flipped writing instruction. Computer Assisted Language Learning33(4), 353-387.

Wulandari, D. S. (2017). Extrovert and introvert students in speaking ability of English department at IAIN Palangka Raya. Retrieved from: http://digilib.iain-palangkaraya.ac.id/1110/2/SKRIPSI%20DYAH%20SRI%20WULANDARI%20-%201301120858.pdf

Yang, C. C. R., & Chen, Y. (2020). Implementing the flipped classroom approach in primary English classrooms in China. Education and Information Technologies25(2), 1217-1235.

Yen, A. C. (2010). Our language clicked: Shakespeare in EFL classes. Asian EFL journal, 12(4), 33-50.

Yeung, A., Read, J., & Schmid, S. (2012). Students’ learning styles and academic performance in first year chemistry. In Proceedings of the Australian Conference on Science and Mathematics Education (formerly UniServe Science Conference).

Yousefi, F. (2016). Investigate frequency the type of personality (Introverts and extroverts) and excitement (stability, Neurosis and psychosis) Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences student. Zanko Journal of Medical Sciences17(52), 18-27.

Yuliani, W., Bharati, D. A. L., & Warsono. (2019). The effectiveness of brainstorming and mind mapping to teach writing narrative text for students with extrovert and introvert personalities. English Education Journal, 9 (4), 459 – 466.

Yunus, M. M., & Chien, C. H. (2016). The use of mind mapping strategy in Malaysian university English test (MUET) Writing. Creative Education7(4), 1-8.

Zafar, S., & Meenakshi, K. (2012). A study on the relationship between extroversion-introversion and risk-taking in the context of second language acquisition. International Journal of Research studies in language learning1(1), 33-40.

Zheng, M.; Chu, C.; Wu, Y.J. & Gou, W. (2018). The mapping of on-line learning to FC: Small private online course. Journal of Sustainability, 10(3), 1-14.

 

Appendix A: Pre- Test

Describe your daily activities. What do you do in the morning, at noon, in the evening and at night.

Post-test

Describe what you are wearing now? What do you usually wear at university, outside, at parties and at home?

 

 

 

Appendix B:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix C

The researcher tried to run one-way ANCOVA on posttest of speaking after controlling for the effect of pretest in order to explore the research questions; however, as displayed in Table 6, the assumption of linearity was violated. The non-significant results of the linearity test, F (1, 67) = .847, p = .073.

Table 6: ANOVA Test of Linearity of ANCOVA Model

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Posttest * Pretest

Between Groups

(Combined)

155.398

12

12.950

1.118

.361

Linearity

.847

1

.847

.073

.788

Deviation from Linearity

154.551

11

14.050

1.212

.296

Within Groups

776.402

67

11.588

 

 

Total

931.800

79

 

 

 

 

            Table 7 and Table 8 display the results of the Levene’s tests on pretest and posttest of speaking. The non-significant results of the tests indicated that the assumption of homogeneity of variances was met on both pretest and posttest.

Table 7: Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances; Pretest of Speaking

 

 

Levene Statistic

df1

df2

Sig.

 

Pretest

Based on Mean

2.513

3

76

.065

 

Based on Median

2.084

3

76

.109

 

Based on Median and with adjusted df

2.084

3

70.166

.110

 

Based on trimmed mean

2.465

3

76

.069

 

 

 

Table 8: Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances; Posttest of Speaking

 

Levene Statistic

df1

df2

Sig.

Posttest

Based on Mean

1.916

3

76

.134

Based on Median

1.776

3

76

.159

Based on Median and with adjusted df

1.776

3

59.485

.161

Based on trimmed mean

1.969

3

76

.126

                       

 



[1] Assistant Professor (Corresponding Author), Department of TEFL and English Literature, Payam-e-Noor University, Iran, f.khodabandeh@pnu.ac.ir

[2] The researcher tried to run one-way ANCOVA; however, the assumption of linearity was not retained (Refer to Appendix C)

Abedi, P., Keshmirshekan, M. H., & Namaziandost, E. (2019). The comparative effect of flipped classes instruction versus traditional instruction on Iranian intermediate EFL learners' English composition writing. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research6 (4), 43-56.
Akmal, A. (2019). The use of audio-visual media in speaking ability of English speaking club students at Stmik Royal Kisaran. Journal of Science and Social Research, 2(1), 1-6.
Al-Jarf, R. (2011). Teaching spelling skills with a mind mapping software. Asian EFL Journal, 53, 4-16.
AlMutairi, A. N. M. (2015). The effect of using brainstorming strategy in developing creative problem solving skills among male students in Kuwait: A field study on Saud Al-Kharji school in Kuwait City. Journal of Education and Practice6 (3), 136-145.
AlWadi, A., & Ismail, N. S. (2019). The use of min mapping strategy to improve speaking competency among EFL primary school students. Trends in Social Sciences1(2), 6-14.
Arniatika, S. (2020). Personality traits, motivational orientations and speaking achievements in the EFL context. International Journal of Indonesian Education and Teaching4(1), 110-120.
Amiryousefi, M. (2019). The incorporation of flipped learning into conventional classes to enhance EFL learners’ L2 speaking, L2 listening, and engagement. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching13(2), 147-161.
AR, F. M. (2017). Improving students’ ability in speaking descriptive text by using mind mapping. English Language Teaching and Research1(1), 1-6.
Araujo, R. C., & Gadanidis, G. (2020). Online collaborative mind mapping in a mathematics teacher education program: a study on student interaction and knowledge construction. ZDM Mathematics Education 52, 943–958.
Astriani, D., Susilo, H., Suwono, H., Lukiati, B., & Purnomo, A. (2020). Mind mapping in learning models: A tool to improve student metacognitive skills. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning15(6), 4-17.
Basal, A. (2015). The implementation of a flipped classroom in foreign language teaching. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 16 (4), 28-37.
Betancur, M. I. G., & King, G. (2014). Using mind mapping as a method to help ESL/EFL students connect vocabulary and concepts in different contexts. Revista Trilogía6(10), 69-85.
Bhavsar, V. M. (2020). A transparent assignment to encourage reading for a flipped course. College Teaching68(1), 33-44.
Bohota, N. I. (2019). Flipped classroom: teaching and learning of English language in the context of EFL. Doctoral dissertation, Brac University.
Boonkit, K. (2010). Enhancing The development of speaking ability for non-native speakers of English, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, (2), 1305-1309.
Borovková, M. P. (2014). Application of mind maps in ELT with the emphasis in lexis. Unpublished MA Thesis: Charles University in Prague, Prague.
Buzan, T. (2004). Mind maps at work: How to be the best at your job and still have time to play. Plume: Academy of Nottingham.
Chen, M. R. A., & Hwang, G. J. (2020). Effects of a concept mapping‐based flipped learning approach on EFL students’ English speaking performance, critical thinking awareness and speaking anxiety. British Journal of Educational Technology51(3), 817-834.
Davies, M. (2011). Concept mapping, mind mapping and argument mapping: what are the differences and do they matter? Higher education62(3), 279-301.
Ekmekci, E. (2017). The flipped writing classroom in Turkish EFL context: A comparative study on a new model. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education18(2), 151-167.
Fatmawati, B. (2016). The analysis of students' creative thinking ability using mind map in biotechnology course. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia5(2), 216-221.
Foroozandehfar, L. & Famil Khalili, Gh. (2019). On the relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ reading fluency, their personality types and learning styles. Cogent Arts & Humanities, 6, (1), 1-19.
Fu, Q. K., Lin, C. J., Hwang, G. J., & Zhang, L. (2019). Impacts of a mind mapping-based contextual gaming approach on EFL students’ writing performance, learning perceptions and generative uses in an English course. Computers & Education137, 59-77.
Ghonsooly, B. & Hosienpour, A. (2009). The effect of concept mapping on EFL speaking fluency. IJAL, 12(1), 87-114.
Goothy, S. S. K.; Movva, S.; Manyam, R.; & Reddy, RS. (2019). The flipped classes and mind mapping in teaching basic sciences to postgraduate dental students. International Journal of Biochemistry & Physiology, 4, (4), 1-5.
Hakim, M.A. R. (2015). Experienced EFL teachers’ challenges and strategies in teaching speaking for introvert students. European Journal of Social Sciences, 48(4), 437-446.
Hemmati, F., & Khodabandeh, F. (2017). Advanced writing. Tehran: Payam Noor University Press.
Hussain, J. A.; Abu Sa'aleek, R. A. & Elenzi, N. M. (2020). The effect of flipped learning and student's personality trait on 5th grade students' English achievement. Research Gate, 38, 7-48. Retrieved from:                                                                    http://damascusuniversity.edu.sy/mag/edu/FCKBIH/file/2-2017/7-47.pdf
Jung, C.G. (1954). The development of personality. Princeton University Press: U.S. Lawrence.
Koster, M. P., van der Wilt, F. M., van Kruistum, C. J., & van der Veen, C. (2017). The effect of mind mapping on listening comprehension and vocabulary in early childhood education. Paper presented at European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction, Tampere, Finland.
Karimi, M., & Hamzavi, R. (2017). The effect of flipped model of instruction on EFL learners' reading comprehension: Learners' attitudes in focus. Advances in Language and Literary Studies8(1), 95-103.
Karami Fard, E. (2013). Applying mind mapping strategies on Iranian vocabulary learning. Paper presented at the first National conference on literature language teaching, Translation In Education: Azad Univeristy of Meybod: Meybod.
Leis, A., Cooke, S., & Tohei, A. (2015). The effects of flipped classrooms on English composition writing in an EFL environment. International Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching5(4), 37-51.
Lestari, A., Sada, C., & Suhartono, L. (2015). Analysis on the relationship of extrovert–introvert personality and students' speaking performance (Doctoral dissertation, Tanjungpura University). Retrieved from: https://media.neliti.com/media/publications/214213-analysis-on-the-relationship-of-extrover.pdf
Lin, C. J., & Hwang, G. J. (2018). A learning analytics approach to investigating factors affecting EFL students' oral performance in a FC. Journal of Educational Technology & Society21(2), 205-219.
Liu, T., & Yuizono, T. (2020). Mind mapping training’s effects on reading ability: Detection based on eye tracking sensors. Sensors20(16), 1-15.
Malekzadeh, B., & Bayat, A. (2015). The effect of mind mapping strategy on comprehending implicit information in EFL reading texts. International Journal of Educational Investigations2(3), 81-90.
Mento, AJ. (1999). Mind mapping in executive education applications and outcomes. Journal of Management Development, 18(4), 390-416.
Mirzaee, M. & Gharibeh, S. (2017). Web-Based Language Learning Perception And Personality Characteristics Of University Students. Teaching English with Technology, 16 (2), 57-70.
Mohammadi, J., Barati, H., & Youhanaee, M. (2019). The effectiveness of using flipped cassroom model on Iranian EFL learners' English achievements and their willingness to communicate. English Language Teaching, 12(5), 101-115.
Murphy, L.; Eduljee, N. B.; Croteau, K. & Parkman, S. (2017). Extraversion and introversion personality type and preferred teaching and classroom participation: A pilot study. Journal of Psychosocial Research, 12, (2), 437-450.
Naghmeh-Abbaspour, B., & Rastgoo, V. (2020). Analysis for finding the effect of mind mapping technique on the Iranian English as Foreign Language learning ‘writing skills. Texto Livre: Linguagem e Tecnologia13(2), 102-116.
Namaziandost, E., Neisi, L., & Momtaz, S. (2019). The effectiveness of flipped classes models on listening‎ comprehension among Iranian upper-intermediate EFL‎ learners. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research6(4), 129-139.
Nasution, D. S. (2020). Mind mapping to improve students’ speaking skill. English Education: English Journal for Teaching and Learning8(01), 1-12.
Noprianto, E. (2017). Extrovert versus introvert students: What EFL learning strategy do they use? Asian TEFL, 2 (2), 119-135.
Nosratinia, M. & Abbasi, f. (2017). The comparative effect of teaching concept mapping in reading on extrovert and introvert EFL learners' self-Regulation. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 6 (5), 161-172.
Nouri Mohammed, A. (2013). Iintroducing the mind map technique to promote lesson summarizing in EFL instruction: Case study of first year IMD student of the English language. Unpublished PhD Dissertation at Mohamed Khieder University of Biskra University: Lampour, India.
Nurlaila, A. P. (2013). The use of mind mapping technique in writing descriptive text. Journal of English and Education1(2), 9-15.
Nurianfar, Y.; Azizi, A. & Gowhary, H. (2014). The analysis of reading strategies used by extrovert and introvert intermediate students in ilam Province, Iran. Journal of Novel Applied Sciences, 3, (12), 1392-1402.
Orlova, N. (2017). Efficiency Of mind mapping for the development of speaking skills in students of non-linguistic study fields. Journal of Science and Education, 6, 151-161.
Pervin, L., & John, O. (2001). Personality: Theory and research. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Pike, G. R. (2006). Students’ personality types, intended majors, and college expectations: Further evidence concerning psychological and sociological interpretations of Holland’s theory. Research in Higher Education47(7), 801-822.
Qader, R. O., & Yalcin Arslan, F. (2019). The effect of flipped classroom instruction in writing: A case study with Iraqi EFL learners. Teaching English with Technology19(1), 36-55.
Ounis, A. (2017). The assessment of speaking skills at the tertiary level. International Journal of English Linguistics7(4), 95-112.
Rachmawati, M., Nugrahaeni, F., & Mauludiyah, L. (2020). Improving Arabic speaking skill through mind mapping strategy. Izdihar: Journal of Arabic Language Teaching, Linguistics, and Literature3(1), 31-44.
Rahmawati, S. & Nurmayasari, E. (2016). A comparative study between extroverted and introverted students and their speaking ability. English Education Study Program,15 (2), 20-29.
Riswanto & Prandika, P.P. (2012). The use of mind mapping strategy in the teaching of writing. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2 (21), 27-40.
Roccas, S., Sagiv, L., Schwartz, S. H., & Knafo, A. (2002). The big five personality factors and personal values. Personality and social psychology bulletin28(6), 789-801.
Rofi’i, A. (2017). Improving students’ motivation in writing descriptive texts by using the mind mapping technique. English Education Journal, 4, (2), 114-121.
Roehl, A., Reddy, S. L. & Shannon, G. J. (2013). The FC: An opportunity to engage millennial students through active learning strategies. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 105 (2), 44-48.
Saslow, J., Ascher, A., & Rouse, J. C. (2006). Top Notch fundamentals. Pearson Longman.
Samand, s.; Sailan, Z. & Lio, A. (2019). Analysis on the relationship of extrovert-introvert personality and students’ speaking performance in English study program of Halu Oleo University. Journal of Language Education and Educational Technology, 4, (1), 1-15.
Srihandayani, T., & Marlina, L. (2019). Using brainstorming technique in speaking activity for senior high school students. Journal of English Language Teaching8(1), 22-32.
Stanković, M. & Čolović, M. (2016). The impact of Ict use on Fll In different personality types. International Scientific Conference On Ict And E-Business Related Research, Singidunum University. Retrieved from:
Stokhof, H., De Vries, B., Bastiaens, T., & Martens, R. (2020). Using mind maps to make student questioning effective: Learning outcomes of a principle-based scenario for teacher guidance. Research in Science Education50(1), 203-225.
Strayer, J. (2012). How learning in an inverted classroom influences cooperation, innovation and task orientation. Learning Environments Research, 15, (2), 171–193.
Suseno, C. I., & Setyawan, S. (2014). The effect of using mind mapping technique on the students’ grammar achievement. Retrieved from: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/43024979.pdf
Tse, W. S., Choi, L. Y., & Tang, W. S. (2019). Effects of video‐based flipped class instruction on subject reading motivation. British Journal of Educational Technology50(1), 385-398.
Umutlu, D., & Akpinar, Y. (2020). Effects of different video modalities on writing achievement in flipped English classes. Contemporary Educational Technology12(2), 1-16.
Valizadeh, M., & Soltanpour, F. (2020). The flipped pedagogy: Effects on the grammatical competence and writing skill of basic users of English. International Journal of Instruction13(3), 761-776.
Vitanofa, A., & Anwar, K. (2018). The effect of flipped learning through graphic organizers toward writing skill at MAN 2 Gresik. Journal of English Teaching, Literature, and Applied Linguistics1(2), 37-49.
Wang, L. (2019). Research on the application of the mind map in English grammar teaching. Theory and Practice in Language Studies9(8), 990-995.
Wette, R. (2017). Using mind maps to reveal and develop genre knowledge in a graduate writing course. Journal of Second Language Writing38, 58-71.
Wu, W. C. V., Yang, J. C., Scott Chen Hsieh, J., & Yamamoto, T. (2020). Free from demotivation in EFL writing: the use of online flipped writing instruction. Computer Assisted Language Learning33(4), 353-387.
Wulandari, D. S. (2017). Extrovert and introvert students in speaking ability of English department at IAIN Palangka Raya. Retrieved from: http://digilib.iain-palangkaraya.ac.id/1110/2/SKRIPSI%20DYAH%20SRI%20WULANDARI%20-%201301120858.pdf
Yang, C. C. R., & Chen, Y. (2020). Implementing the flipped classroom approach in primary English classrooms in China. Education and Information Technologies25(2), 1217-1235.
Yen, A. C. (2010). Our language clicked: Shakespeare in EFL classes. Asian EFL journal, 12(4), 33-50.
Yeung, A., Read, J., & Schmid, S. (2012). Students’ learning styles and academic performance in first year chemistry. In Proceedings of the Australian Conference on Science and Mathematics Education (formerly UniServe Science Conference).
Yousefi, F. (2016). Investigate frequency the type of personality (Introverts and extroverts) and excitement (stability, Neurosis and psychosis) Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences student. Zanko Journal of Medical Sciences17(52), 18-27.
Yuliani, W., Bharati, D. A. L., & Warsono. (2019). The effectiveness of brainstorming and mind mapping to teach writing narrative text for students with extrovert and introvert personalities. English Education Journal, 9 (4), 459 – 466.
Yunus, M. M., & Chien, C. H. (2016). The use of mind mapping strategy in Malaysian university English test (MUET) Writing. Creative Education7(4), 1-8.
Zafar, S., & Meenakshi, K. (2012). A study on the relationship between extroversion-introversion and risk-taking in the context of second language acquisition. International Journal of Research studies in language learning1(1), 33-40.
Zheng, M.; Chu, C.; Wu, Y.J. & Gou, W. (2018). The mapping of on-line learning to FC: Small private online course. Journal of Sustainability, 10(3), 1-14.