The Effect of Critical Language Awareness on EFL Learners’ Writing Ability (Research Paper)

Document Type : Original Article


English Department, Faculty of Humanities, University of Guilan


The present study sought to investigate the effect of Critical Language Awareness (CLA) on upper-intermediate EFL learners’ writing ability. Thirty-two EFL learners were selected based on their scores on a placement test and were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. In addition to the placement test, a five-paragraph essay writing test was administered to assess the participants’ writing ability through the use of a standardized rubric consisting of five categories of critical response, development of ideas, structure of response, word choice, and mechanics. The three-stage treatment which was based on the frameworks of Wallace (1992), Fairclough (1989) and Ivanic and Simpson (1992) was offered to the experimental group in twelve sessions. The result of independent samples t-tests did not show any significant effect of the treatment on the participants’ overall writing ability; however, when the categories were considered separately, the result was statistically significant in terms of critical response. The major implication of this study is for writing instructors who need to consider critical attitudes of the EFL learners as an important factor in their instruction.


Article Title [فارسی]

تاثیر آگاهی انتقادی زبان بر توانایی نوشتاری فراگیران زبان انگلیسی به عنوان زبان خارجی

Authors [فارسی]

  • سیاوش زکاییه
  • عبدالرضا تحریری
Abstract [فارسی]

هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی تاثیر آگاهی انتقادی زبان بر توانایی نوشتاری فراگیران زبان انگلیسی فوق متوسط برآگاهی انتقادی زبان بود. برای این منظور، سی و دو نفر از فراگیران زبان که توسط آزمون تعیین سطح انتخاب شده بودند به صورت تصادفی در دو گروه آزمایش و کنترل تقسیم شدند. علاوه بر آزمون تعیین سطح دو ابزاربرای جمع‌آوری روی دادها مورد بررسی قرار گرفت: 1) آزمون پنج بندی نگارش به عنوان پیش آزمون و پس آزمون برای تعیین مهارت نگارش گروه‌های آزمایش و کنترل و 2) مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته جهت تایید یافته‌های حاصل از پرسش نامه محاسبه و تایید گردید .736)= a) به علا.وه راهنمای نمره‌گذاری استاندارد که شامل پنج مقوله‌ی پاسخ انتقادی، گسترش ایده، ساختار پاسخ، انتخاب واژگان مناسب و روش نگارش متن بود، جهت ارزیابی مهارت نگارش زبان آموزان مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. آموزش گروه آزمایش در سه مرحله بر مبنای چارچوب مطرح شده توسط والاس (1992)، فرکلاف (1981) و ایوانیک و سیمیسون (1992) در دوازده جلسه ارایه گردید. نتایج آزمون مستقل تی نشان داد که به طور کلی در مقاله های مورد نظر آگاهی انتقادی، زبان آماری معناداری بر مهارت نوشتاری ندارد. با وجود این، زمانی که مقوله‌های مورد نظر به صورت مجزا مورد بررسی قرار گرفت، نتیجه از لحاظ تاثیر آموزش بر پاسخ انتقادی در نگارش معنادار بود. یافته‌های این پژوهش، بر در نظر گرفتن نگرش انتقادی زبان‌آموزان از سوی مدرسان مهارت نگارش به عنوان عامل مهمی در امر آموزش تاکید دارد.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • آگاهی انتقادی زبان
  • نگارش
  • گفتمان
  • زبان انگلیسی به عنوان زبان خارجی
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