The Acquisition and Development of the Concepts of English Modality Through Metaphors

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 ACECR Institute of Higher Education (Isfahan Branch) IUT University, Khomeyni Shahr, Isfahan, Iran

2 Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Isfahan, Iran IAU Khorasgan university, Isfahan, Iran

Abstract

The current study attempted to investigate the effect of Systemic-Theoretical Instruction (STI) on English-language learners’ acquisition of the concepts of modal verbs through exploiting metaphors. To this end, the effect of the main treatment of the study, i.e. Concept-Based Instruction (CBI) was investigated through conceptual metaphors, in two gender (male vs. female) and language proficiency (Elementary vs. Intermediate) groups. To inspect the acquisition of modality concepts, the participants were given a pretest and a posttest. The results were statistically analyzed through independent sample t-test and Pearson Correlation Coefficient. The results of the inspection in learning modality revealed that participants in the Experimental, Intermediate and Female groups outperformed their counterparts in the Control group in the modal test. Further, the investigation of cognitive awareness on the concepts of modality and its development revealed that the learners’ definitions on the concepts of English modal verbs were theoretically functional before STI, while they were semantically based after STI.

Keywords


References

Barcelona, A. (Ed.) (2000). Metaphor and Metonymy at the Crossroads: a Cognitive Perspective. Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 

 

Bardovi-Harlig, K. (1995). The interaction of pedagogy and natural sequences in the acquisition of tense and aspect. In F. Eckman (Ed). Second Language Acquisition: Theory and Pedagogy. (pp. 151-168). Hillsdale, N.J. : L. Erlbaum Associates, 1995. 

 

Bardovi-Harlig, K. (2000). Tense and aspect in second language acquisition: Form, meaning, and use. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, Inc.

 

Chaiklin, S. (2003). The Zone of Proximal Development in Vygotsky’s Analysis of Learning and Instruction. In A. Kozulin, B. Gindis, V.S. Ageyev, &S.M. Miller(Eds.), Vygotsky’s Educational Theory in Cultural Context (pp. 39-64). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

 

Davydov, V. V. (1984). Substantial generalization and the dialectical-materialist theory of thinking. In M. Hedegaard, P. Hakkarainen, & Y. Engstrom (Eds.), Learning and teaching on a scientific basis (pp. 11-32). Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus University Press.

 

Davydov, V. V. (1999).  The content and unsolved problems of activity theory. In Y. Engestrém, R. Miettinen, 8: R.-L. Punamaki (Eds.), Perspectives on Activity Theory (pp. 39-52). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

Di Carlo, G.S. (2014). Figurative Language in Science Popularisation:Similes as an ExplanatoryStrategy in TED Talks.  3L: The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies – Vol 20(3): 1-16

 

Danesi, M. (1993). Metaphorical competence in second language acquisition and second language teaching: The neglected dimension. In J. Alatis (Ed.), Language, Communication, and Social meaning. (pp. 489-500) Washington, D.C. : Georgetown University Press.

 

Ferreira, M. M. (2005). A Concept-based Approach to Writing Instruction: From the Abstract Concept to the Concrete Performance (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.

 

Ferreira, M. M., &Lantolf, J. P. (2008). A concept-based approach to teaching: Writing through genre analysis. In J. P. Lantolf& M. Poehner (Eds.), Sociocultural  theory and second  language teaching (pp.  285– 320). London,  England: Equinox.

 

Frawley, W., &Lantolf, J. P. (1985) Second Language Discourse: A Vygotskian Perspective. Applied Linguistics, 6, 19-44.

 

Frazier, G. & Guillermina, E. (2013). Concept-Based Teaching and Spanish Modality in Heritage Language Learners: A Vygotskyan Approach . Dissertations. Paper 686.

 

Gal’perin, P. (1967). On the notion of internalization. Soviet Psychology, 8, 28-33.

 

Gal`perin, P. I. (1989). Organization of mental activity and the effectiveness of learning. Soviet Psychology, 27(3), 65-82.

 

Gal’perin, P. (1992a). Stage-by-stage formation as a method of psychological  investigation. Journal of Russian and East European Psychology, 30(4), 60–80.

 

Gal’perin, P. (1992b). Linguistic Consciousness and Some Questions of the  Relationship between Language and Thought. Journal of Russian and East European Psychology, 30(4), 28-49.

 

Galperin, P. I. (1992). Stage-by-stage formation as a method of psychological investigation. Journal of Russian and East European Psychology, 30 (4), 60-80.

 

Gibb, R. (Ed.) (2008). The Cambridge Handbook of Metaphor and Thought. New York : Cambridge University Press.

Haenen, J. (1996). Piotr Gal’perin: Psychologist in Vygotsky’s Footsteps. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers.

 

Hedegaard, M. (1995a). Beskrivelse afsmåbørn. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press. 

 

Holme, R. (2004). Mind, Metaphor and Language Teaching. New York : Palgrave Macmillan.

 

Karpov, Y. V. (2005) . The Neo-Vygotskian Approach to Child Development.Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

 

Karpov, Y. & Haywood, H. (1998) Two Ways to Elaborate Vygotsky's Concept of Mediation. American Psychologist. Vol 53, No. 1. pp 27-36.

 

Kövecses, Z. (2002). Metaphor: a Practical introduction. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press.

 

Kövecses, Z. (2006). Language, Mind, and Culture: a Practical Introduction. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press.

 

Kozulin, A (2003). Psychological Tools and Mediated Learning. In A. Kozulin, B. Gindis, V. S. Ageyev and S. M. Miller (Eds.),  In Vygotsky’s Educational Theory in Cultural Context (pp. 39-64). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

 

Kozulin, A. Gindis, B. Ageyev, V. & Miller, S.(Eds.) Vygotsky’s Educational Theory in Cultural Context. (p. 246-66) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

Lakoff, George & Mark Johnson (1980) Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

 

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1999). Philosophy in the Flesh: the Embodied Mind and Its Challenge to Western Thought. New York: Basic books.

 

Lantolf (1999). Second culture acquisition. In E. Hinkel (ed). Culture in Second Language Teaching and Learning. (pp. 28-46). New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

Lantolf, J. P. (Ed.). (2000). Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

 

Lantolf, J. (2006). Sociocultural theory and second language learning: State of the art. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 67-109.

 

Lantolf, J. P., &Poehner, M. E. (Eds.). (2008).  Sociocultural theory and the teaching of second languages. London: Equinox.

 

Lantolf, J.P.,&Thorne,S.L.(2006). Sociocultural Theory and the Genesis of Second Language Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

 

Lapkin, S., M. Swain, &Knouzi, I. (2008). French as a second language university students learn the grammatical concept of voice : a study design, materials development and pilot data. In J.P. Lantolf and M.E. Poehner (Eds.), Sociocultural theory and the teaching of second languages. (pp. 228-255). UK: Equinox Pub.

 

Littlemore, J. & Low, G. (2006). Figurative Thinking and Foreign Language Learning. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

 

Luria, A. R. (1976). Cognitive Development: Its Cultural and Social Foundations.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

 

Markova, A. K. (1979). The teaching and mastery of language. White Plains, NY: M. E. Sharpe. 

 

Negueruela, E. (2003). Systemic-Theoretical Instruction and L2 development: A Sociocultural approaching to teaching-learning and researching L2 learning (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.

 

Negueruela, E. J., &Lantolf, J. P. (2006). A concept-based approach to teaching Spanish grammar. In R. Salaberry, & B. Lafford (Eds.), Spanish second language acquisition: State of the art. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

 

Negueruela, E., Lantolf, J. P., Rehn Jordan, S., &Gelabert, J. (2004). The “private function” of gesture in second language speaking activity: a study of motion verbs and gesturing in English and Spanish. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 14(1), 113-147.

 

Nourmohammadi, Esmail, ZareBehtash, E. (2015). Exercises in Everyday English Metphorical Expressions. A cognitive linguistics approach. Jungle Publications.

 

Pavlenko, A. (1999).  New approaches to concepts in bilingual memory. Keynote article. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 2, 3, 209-230.

 

Poehner, M. E. (2008). Dynamic Assessment: A Vygotskian Approach to Understanding and Promoting Second Language Development. Berlin, Germany: Springer Publishing.

 

Poehner, M.  E., &Lantolf, J.  P. (2010). Vygotsky’s Teaching-Assessment Dialectic and L2 Education: The Case for Dynamic Assessment. Mind, Culture, and Activity,  17, 312-330.

 

RezazadehYezdeli, J; Mellati, M. Mehdizadeh, M. (2016). The Relationship between Lexical Fluency, Temporal Fluency, and Language Proficiency in Iranian EFL Context. 3L: The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies – Vol 22(1): 111 – 125

 

Rundell, M. (2002). Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners. Macmillan Education.

 

Schmidt, R. W. (1995). Consciousness and foreign language learning: A tutorial on the role of attention and awareness in learning. In R. Li, R.R.R, Suleiman, Z. Sazalie. The Relationship between Motivation and Pragmatic Awareness: A CaseStudy of Chinese EFL Learners, 2015. 3L: The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies – Vol 21(3): 41 – 55

 

Scribner, S. (1977). Modes of Thinking and Ways of Speaking: Culture and Logic Reconsidered. In P. N. Johnson-Laird & P. C. Wason (Eds.), Thinking: Readings In Cognitive Science (pp. 483-500). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

 

Scribner, S., & Cole, M. (1981). The Psychology of Literacy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

 

Serrano-Lopez &Poehner, M. (2008). Materializing linguistic concepts through 3-D clay modeling. In J. Lantolf& M. Poehner. (Eds.) Sociocultural Theory and the Teaching of Second Languages. (p. 285-320) London: Equinox Publishing Ltd.

 

Scribner, S. (1977). Modes of Thinking and Ways of Speaking: Culture and Logic Reconsidered. In P. N. Johnson-Laird & P. C. Wason (Eds.), Thinking: Readings In Cognitive Science (pp. 483-500). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

 

Scribner, S., & Cole, M. (1981). The Psychology of Literacy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

 

Smagorinsky, P., Lakly, A., & Johnson, T. S. (2002). Acquiescence, accommodation, and resistance in learning to teach within a prescribed curriculum. English Education, 34, 187-213.

 

Talyzina, N. (1981). The psychology of learning. Moscow, Russia: Progress Publishers.

 

Tulviste, P. (1989). Education and the Development of Concepts: Interpreting Results of Experiments with Adults with and without Schooling. Soviet Psychology, 27(1),5-21.

 

Tulviste, P. (1992). Historical Heterogeneity of Verbal Thought. Journal of Russian and East European Psychology. January-February. 30(1), 77-88.

 

Tyler, A. (2012) Cognitive Linguistics and second language learning: Theoretical basics andexperimental evidence. New York and London: Routledge.

 

Van Compernolle, RA. (2011). Developing Second Language Sociopragmatic  Knowledge Through Concept-based Instruction: A Microgenetic Case Study. Journal of pragmatics. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2011.06.009.

 

Vygotsky,L.S.(1978). Mind In Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press.

 

Vygotsky, L. S. (1986). Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Original work published 1934).

 

Zarei, G.R.; Pourghasemian, H. (2016). Mediational Role of Perceptual Styles in L2 Lexical Inferencing and theAssociated Strategy Use. 3L: The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies – Vol 22(1): 179 – 189.